Application Notes

Application Notes

Picarro’s Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) instruments have become a globally accepted standard for the analysis of water stable isotopes from discrete liquid water samples, ambient water vapor and water extracted from solid matrices. Ease-of-use, lower cost, small footprint, and reliable performance have made these instruments an appealing alternative to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometers (IRMS), previously the only existing technique for such analyses.

The Picarro Salt Liner is an easy-to-use, inexpensive accessory that protects the isotopic analyzer system from salt build-up in the vaporizer. It can be removed, cleaned, and replaced in a few minutes to reduce downtime. Picarro recommends cleaning and replacing the salt liner after every 24 hours of seawater analysis

The Picarro Small Sample Introduction Module (SSIM) is designed for processing small volumes of gas samples through a Picarro analyzer. This application note serves as a method guide so that accurate and precise measurement can be made.

In this note, we present the application of the Picarro Combustion Module Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CM-CRDS) System as a low-cost, easy-to-use, accurate, and precise solution to identify the addition of C4 sugars (adulteration), based on the carbon isotopic (δ13C) composition of the coconut water.

In agriculture, evapotranspiration (ET), or the flux of water from a vegetated surface via both evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) by plants, is an important component of the water budget. In these guidelines, we demonstrate how laser-based absorption spectroscopy, and in particular, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS), can be applied to many steps of ET analyses.

Measurement and control of contaminants is critical in a variety of industrial applications including power generation, petrochemical processing, and semiconductor manufacturing. In many cases, the measurement of critical contaminants at parts per billion (ppb) levels is required to achieve optimal process control or safeguard valuable work-in-process material. 

Picarro has developed a new analyzer capable of simultaneously measuring five gases: N2O, CH4, CO2, NH3, and H2O. This paper demonstrates the ability of this analyzer to measure soil fluxes when connected to a static chamber as part of a closed system.

Natural ecosystems have long been the focus of flux research, however characterizing the complexities of the urban environment is also critical to understanding global cycles. Wade McGillis from Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory has deployed the Picarro flux instrument (G2311-f) on the largest greenroof, the main post office building in Manhattan.

A rapid screening method that very effectively discriminates cheeses made in different locations is shown. The method is useful for ingredient authentication for fraud detection.

Induction Module-Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy is used to demonstrate how cheese retains its local environmental stable isotopic signature of water. This should allow differentiation of products made in different locales and is an ideal approach for food/ingredient fraud detection.

Induction Module Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy is demonstrated as a rapid and easy method to use water isotopes to probe physiological processes

An example of a setup for water vapor isotope measurements and considerations in data analysis.

A clear distinction in dual-isotopic ratio measurements of individual samples indicates the applicability of the new combustion analyzer to geographical origin verification and product authentication.  

A fast screening method for supply chain quality control  and truth-in-labeling verification of beef products.

A quick screening method of using stable isotopes to distinguish the precise geographical origin of fresh produce.

Using a Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument to probe cropland evapotranspiration, literally in the field.

This note provides details about a Picarro CRDS-based fast screening method to test for adulteration with corn or cane sugar.

A fast screening method of imported honey to test for product adulteration with high fructose corn syrup.

Picarro water isotope analyzers provide optional high speed measurements with minimal impact on memory and precision and no impact on drift compared to high precision operation.

Measuring the same water samples on two consecutive days using the Picarro L1102-i, without calibration, yields highly consistent data.

A test spanning ca. 1200 separate injections over several days indicates no performance changes or other effects due to salt build-up.

A fast screening method distinguishes between oils derived from different plant species and can be used to test for product adulteration.

This document explains how users can easily apply their own calibration adjustments, specifically to Picarro water isotope analyzers.

The simplicity of integrating Picarro analyzers into field measurement sites has enabled their deployment worldwide for GHG analysis.

This document explains how users can easily apply their own calibration adjustments to Picarro gas and isotope analyzers.

WS-CRDS provides simple δ13C measurements of DIC, enabling the source type of these compounds to be determined.

A quick screening method of using stable isotopes to distinguish the true origin and/or composition of natural food and beverage products

Examples of Picarro analyzers used in tall-tower measurements of greenhouse gases.

Examples of Picarro analyzers used for ultra-sensitive ammonia measurements in the semiconductor industry.

August 2015: See Application Note AN035 for an update.